Raku

Keraku MethodeRaku ist eine spezielle Brenntechnik, die ihren Ursprung in Japan hat. Das glasierte oder unglasierte Gefäss wird – entgegen dem herkömmlichen Verfahren Keramik zu brennen (langsames Abkühlen im geschlossenen Ofen) – wegen der starken Rauchentwicklung meist im Freien gebrannt. Bei diesem Niedrigbrand werden die rotglühenden Gefässe einzeln mit einer langen Zange bei Temperaturen um 1000 °C dem Ofen entnommen und in einem Behälter mit organischem Brennstoff (Holzspäne, Laub, Stroh, Heu etc.) luftdicht eingebettet. Raku Keramik ist oft relativ dickwandig, damit sie bei diesem Wechsel vom Ofen zum Behälter nicht zu viel Hitze verliert. Der entstehende Rauch (Kohlenstoff) und der Sauerstoffentzug wirken stark auf den Tonscherben und die Glasurfarbe ein. Durch die stark reduzierende Atmosphäre wird der noch weichen Glasur Sauerstoff entzogen. Die chemische Zusammensetzung verändert sich teilweise, z.B. aus Kupferoxid (grün) wird Kupfer (rot), und die Glasurfarbe ändert sich. Kohlenstoff (schwarz) dringt durch Haarrisse (Krack) und lagert sich im Tonscherben ein. Der Brennverlauf lässt sich beim Raku Kunsthandwerk nur bedingt steuern, sodass jedes Stück ein unnachahmliches Raku Unikat ist.

Brennvorgang Raku

Da die Gefässe durch die Brennweise kräftige Temperaturschocks unbeschadet überstehen müssen, ist die Raku-Masse meistens sehr grob und enthält einen hohen Anteil an Schamotte.

Raku-Glasuren schmelzen zwischen 900 °C und 1000 °C (Niedrigbrand). Die Glasuroberfläche reisst beim Abkühlen, wodurch das typische Kraklee entsteht. Färbende Oxide sind meist Eisenoxid und Kupferoxid, sie bewirken eine starke Farbveränderung. Auch Metallsalze werden verwendet.

Raku Kraklee

Zu den Raku Kunstwerken

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